In Brazil, All eyes on the Amazon works in three areas:
Turiaçu and Araribóia Indigenous Lands Mosaic
Area. The Turiaçu and Araribóia Indigenous Lands Mosaic is located in the frontier between the states of Maranhão and Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon (Figure 1). With 1.9 M hectares this territory is managed by almost 11,000 indigenous people.
Threats. By being an island of conserved forest, the area is under increasing pressure of deforestation (red color in the Figure 1). Lack of law enforcement, illegal logging, fishing, hunting, mining as well as large scale infrastructure project (e.g. roads, railways) and agribusiness are important treats to people and forest of this area. Moreover, climate change has increased risks of fire occurrence, which can be an important threat to isolated indigenous people.
People. With a long history of activism, indigenous people of this area have built a strong community organization. As effort to protect their territories they organized themselves as Indigenous Guardians, which has gained visibility of a series of documentaries and media materials.
Activities. Local inhabitants have knowledge and experience in managing technologies and mapping to manage their territories. With further training in monitoring techniques, satellite data, drones, GPS and documentation, they are able to also prevent risks to their lands and livelihoods.
Lago Grande Agroextractive Reserve
Area. With an area of 250,000 hectares and almost 6,600 inhabitants, the Lago Grande Agroextractive Reserve (LGAR) is located in the western region of state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon (Figure 2). This area is on the intersection of important protected areas including the Taparajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve, Tapajós National Forest, and territories of indigenous people whom have claimed recognition of their property rights over their ancestral territories.
Threats. The reserve is a new frontier in the Brazilian Amazon with planned multi-million dollars large scale infrastructure investments on dams, railways, waterway systems, ports, mining, and agribusiness. Millions have been invested to explore mining concessions in this region, which have contributed to contamination of rivers, deforestation, and land conflicts.
People. The area contains an extremely rich biodiversity, pristine forests, and also floodplain ecosystem. Forest dwellers (rubber tappers, riverine families, and indigenous people) are urging the Brazilian government to do more to protect their territories from economic activities that pressure forests and local environment. Since 2007 a coalition of community organizations, rubber tapper associations, unions and indigenous grassroots organizations have compelled the Brazilian General Attorney office to act against violations of rights of local residents.
Activities. Train community members in n managing technologies and mapping to manage their territories, monitoring techniques, satellite data, drones, GPS and documentation.
Karipuna Indigenous Land
Area. Rondônia is one of leaders of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. In 2017, in this state an area the size of a soccer (football) field was cleared every 5 minutes. Illegal logging, mining, cattle and soybeans are key economic sectors for the GDP of this state. The Karipuna Indigenous Land is a territory of 153,000 hectares located in the state of Rondônia (Figure 3).
Threats. The pressure on this territory will increase over the coming years with planned investment to build a railway from Brazil, which will cross Rondônia, to the Peruvian ports aimed at exporting agribusiness commodities from the Amazon region to Europe and China.
People. Inhabited by 58 people, the Karipuna have faced increasing pressure from state economic sectors that contribute to deforestation and environmental degradation. With threats from all sides, this indigenous territory is the last remaining block of pristine forest in the north of the state of Rondônia. A critical challenge for the Karipuna indigenous people is the fact that their contact with the “modern world” occurred less than forty years ago and is relatively recent.
Activities. It is under this context that Karipuna people have engaged with the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Environment, Federal Prosecutor Office, and national NGOs to defend their rights and enforce environmental laws against threats to their lives and territories. However, the response from Brazilian authorities have been limited and they faced the challenge of monitoring their territories by themselves using the public platforms provided by the Brazilian government. Those platforms do not provide “near real time” information about where and how forests are changing. Within the program Global Forest Watch and also the enforcement components will be implemented to support the Karipuna.